BROODING

Brooding period general management

The rearing period is of major importance for the life of the breeders: the productivity of a flock

depends to a large extent on the successful attainment of bodyweight targets since early age.

The objectives during brooding period are:

– rapid growth to reach body weight target at 5 weeks of age

– good uniformity from the beginning

– excellent live ability

From day old to 5 weeks of age it is a key period: body frame is built, vital organs develop as well

as the immune system. Any delay in growth will be reflected in a reduction in bodyweight at 16

weeks and then in later performance. Also breeder chick’s ability to resist disease and respond to

vaccines may be affected.

 

PREPARING FOR CHICKS ARRIVAL/ BROODING YOUNG CHICKS

..Management of the brooding environment and the young chick

Over the years, poultry breeding researches have ended up producing layers with tremendous performance qualities like liveability, consistent peak production and egg quality.

These highly positive genetic characteristics can only be fully realized when the bird is provided with good management, which includes, but is not limited to, good quality feed, housing and proper management practice.

The purpose of this guide is to help the producer to get the best possible results from their investment. This will be achieved by providing conditions in which the layers can thrive.

Rearing period:

Good brooding conditions for the best starting of the chicks

The period from one day old to the point of first egg production is a critical time in the life of the laying hen. It is during this time that the physiological capability of the hen is developed.Success in the rearing period leads to the success in the laying house and it starts from chick arrival

 

 

 

 

 

PREPARING FOR CHICKS ARRIVAL (..House Preparation , Cleaning and Bio-security)

Batch of Production phase complete!

 

So What Next?

…….Preparing for another batch of chicks.

After a successful production phase when the farmer would have sold his/her spent layers, a farmer should have started making plans for collection of another batch of replacement pullets.

 

This would involve a lot of aforehand preparation both before and during house preparation and cleaning.

The objective here is to minimize the effect of disease carrying organisms in the brooding house to the barest minimum so as to avoid the incidence of disease outbreak in the subsequent flock.

 

Under normal circumstances, there should be a downtime/rest period of 3 weeks or more after the completion of the cleaning process before restocking the pen with another batch of birds. This would reduce the microbial load in the house as the absence of any disease carrier/host is very critical in house preparation.

 

Site cleaning must cover both exterior and interior parts of the house.

 

 

Clean up & disinfection

  • Use an insecticide to spray the pen just after the birds/spent layers have been removed
  • Remove all the non-stationary equipment from the pen and transfer them outside for washing
  • Remove all the residual feed from troughs, conveyors and bins.
  • Exterminate all rodents and wild birds
  • Remove all the manure, litter, feathers, dust, and any other organic materials and ensure that they are evacuated and properly disposed far away from the poultry site.
  • Use dusting brush to remove all dusts, cobwebs, debris before washing the pen.
  • Use pressure washers with detergents to wash equipment, fans , water tanks, feed bins, walls and floor as this would remove the remaining debris left after dusting.
  • After using detergent to wash the pen and equipment, Use fresh water using the pressure washer again to rinse all.
  • After washing is completed, there should be no dirt, dust , debris, litter or cobweb left in the pen

 

 

Disinfection is efficient only after washing thoroughly as they would be ineffective in the presence of dirt and organic matter

  • Disinfect the interior of the building on surfaces and all equipment
  • Use pressure washer or knapsack sprayer for the purpose of disinfection
  • When the building is tightly enclosed with the curtains, fumigate the building while it is stilldamp from disinfecting. Since formalin effectiveness is temperature and relative humidity dependent, the temperature should be a minimum of 21 degrees centigrade and humidity should not be less than 65%
  • After the building is fumigated, close up for 24 hours and then air out for another 24 hours

 

When the fresh litter has been placed, fumigation process above can be repeated again.

 

Where necessary, floor treatment can be carried out to reduce clostridium count as well as supplement the effectiveness of disinfection.

Salt and lime can be used for this purpose.

 

Keep all GRASSES AND WEEDS away from the PEN to prevent rodents and other animals from having easy entry points to the pen.Preferably the surrounding floor can be covered with gravel or plastered with concrete .It should be well drained and free of stagnant water

 

 

WATER SYSTEMS

The procedure for cleaning water systems involves the following

  • Drain the pipes and overhead tank.
  • Flush the pipes with clean water
  • Scrub the overhead tank to remove biofilms deposit and other residue from Vitamin and other medication treatments in the tank.
  • Drain the dirt from the above step through the side outlet and not the pipe that carries water into the main pen.
  • Refill the tank with clean water and add water sanitizer ,
  • Let the sanitized water run through the drinker pipelines that takes water into the pen
  • Leave for 24 hours before draining the water through the outlet of the drinker pipelines
  • Refill with fresh water and drain again.

 

Flush the water lines prior to arrival, and make sure that no disinfectant is left in the water lines when the chicks arrive.

 

 

Finally, if all these can be properly carried out, the farmer should be rest assured that the newly acquired flock would be raised in a disease free, sanitized brooding environment without any incidence of disease transmission from the already spent flock.

 

SITING A POULTRY FARM (Part 2)

 

Housing

The objective here is to provide a protected environment where temperature, humidity, ventilation, day length and light intensity can be well managed during the lifetime of the flock to attain good, consistent production performance over the years.

 

The planning of the poultry house should be taken seriously as it would greatly determine how the above listed environmental factors that affect birds’ production performance would be adequately controlled by the poultry farmer.

 

General rules

In planning your building, they should be erected so that they may be easily and thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after the completion of a production phase.

 

Proper ceiling height for adequate ventilation purposes to ensure constant supply of oxygen while removing carbon dioxide, ammonia and dust.

 

The pen house should be designed for easy access and removal for   Poultry equipment during cleaning.

 

For open sided housing it is important to design the roof to prevent excess sunlight from entering the pen house.

 

In areas where there is always a high noon temperature, the roofing sheet should be made of materials that don’t easily absorb heat which can consequentially result to heat stress on the birds. It is preferable to go for slate materials due to their poor heat conductivity as against the commonly used corrugated iron sheets.

 

Endeavor to place wire netting or blockages over openings, ventilation inlets and other outlets to control predators, rodents and wild birds and other disease carriers from having access to the pen.

 

 

 

 

Provisions should be made to Control the entries and restrict to the minimum the number of entries in the farm with strict procedures by constructing a changing room for such purpose.

 

The floor material should be made of concrete for easy washing, during and after clean up and disinfection.

 

Provisions should be made for farm workers to wear protective clothing within the farm area

 

Provide specific protective clothing anddisinfected boots for veterinarians, consultants when entering the farm.

 

Do not allow truck/Lorry drivers from outside to enter the poultry farm houses.

 

In constructing the pen house, biosecurity guidelines must be followed.

 

Ensure there should be provision for a foot dip where disinfectants for dipping foot wears of farm workers before entering the poultry pen.

 

Also as a rule of thumb , in situations where more than one poultry pen is to be constructed, here should be allowance of at least 10 meters separating both pens to avoid issues of disease transmission especially airborne diseases lie MG that can be easily transmitted by air.

The adequate distance would also allow for ease of flow of air especially during the hot season when there is usually little air movement resulting to poor ventilation.

The Farm should be placed as far as possible from other poultry farms to avoid issues of airborne disease transmission whenever there is an outbreak. It is advisable that the distance to the nearest poultry farm or any other livestock facility should be at least 3km away from your farm.

 

Each phase of production should be treated as a separate Batch.

In case of large scale poultry farms where there are more pens; there should be a rearing farm section with similar age only while another section of the land would be allocated for a laying farm with closely similar age as well with each batch of supplies coming from the rearing farm section.

 

If all these procedural guidelines can be taken into consideration and strictly implemented during and after planning, then the poultry farmer can be rest assured of a successful crisis free rearing cum production phase when the real poultry farming activity begins.

SITING A POULTRY FARM (Part 1)

 

In siting a location for a poultry farm, certain important issues are to be taken into consideration.It is important that the location of the intended poultry farm is properly sited.

 

Problems can arise if a poultry facility is constructed in improper locations. Planning ahead will help avoid preventable environmental problems as it will save time, money and prevent conflicts in the nearby future.

 

 

 

Guidelines concerning poultry farm location

Firstly, the farm should be sited far away from other poultry houses.

Other factors of emphasis in site selection for poultry houses must include nearness to access roads, the topography of the land, direction of the prevailing winds, the presence of existing buildings in the area, nearness to other residents, as well as laws and regulations of the government in siting poultry farms.

 

 

Topography

It would be advisable to use a location with not too steep or hilly slope due to the fact that a level surface with minimum gentle slope would be required for setting up the poultry house. The more undulated the terrain is, the higher the expenses to be spent on Grading the soil surface which would definitely increase the total construction cost.

Avoid a terrain that is deep lying especially if it is near a stream with flooding and or water logging potential when the rainy season begins. Also issues of erosion might occur if the drainage in the farm location is poorly aligned.

 

 

Wind direction

The wind current can easily carry along odours from the poultry house towards any closely located residence. It would be advisable to site the pen in a location that is quite far from other residents. There should be adequate space and distance for Odors from poultry house to diffuse before reaching any nearby residence. The distance from the poultry house location to any residence would need to be greater if winds move in the direction of residential buildings.

 

Provision for Other Relevant Buildings/structures
Apart from the main poultry pen where the birds are stocked, there should be provision for other buildings; such as feed storage bins, a residential house, dead-bird decomposition area, an equipment store and a place for litter disposition.

With the exception of the residential quarters, other farm buildings need to be located close enough to the main pen to minimize movement time; the location for dead-bird decomposition and litter disposition should also be far enough away to reduce possible disease transmission.

Future Expansion Plans

Every poultry farmer should have plans for expansion as naturally due to the profit oriented nature of poultry farming as a business, there is a possibility of constructing more poultry pens to accommodate a higher population of birds being stocked by the farmer.

Does the site allow the possibility for further expansion? A poultry farmer may start with one house and may construct an additional two to as many as five houses at a future time. He may as well decide to delve into other forms or agribusiness like fish farming, snail rearing and the likes. The issue of Future Expansion Plans is a must if any intending farmer plans to setup a poultry farm.

 

Access roads

Easy access to the farm should be considered especially in situations where customers would have to come down to the farm premises to purchase poultry products from the farm environment.

 

In conclusion, if all these factors that are mentioned are well taken into consideration, there would be a high probability that the poultry farmer has set a good foundation for success in the poultry farming business.

 

STARTING A POULTRY FARM

So you wanna start a poultry farm.

Definitely YES! That’s just why you are reading this poultry write up.

There are certain questions that must be answered if you really want to make a successful entry into the highly interesting, attractive and rigorous poultry farm business.

There are three important focal points of efforts that every successful poultry farm owner should have .i.e Technical, physical and financial.

Poultry farming is highly technical that is why proper agro education acquired through on farm experience and/or classroom training shouldn’t be ignored. Some poultry farming techniques and principles an educated person would easily grab technical wise may be difficult for an uneducated person to understand.

 

Poultry farming is really physical. And I mean it!

The laborious nature involved cannot be underestimated.These birds deserve all the comfort and care that you can afford to give them

However in most cases the services of a pen attendant takes away the stress off the farm owner although farmers with fewer numbers of birds may be less concerned about employing a pen assistant.

Finally, Poultry farming requires a lot of financial commitments due to the fact that apart from the cost of setting up as well as poultry equipment acquisition, one would have to provide finances for feeding, vaccination, medication and a paid poultry farm attendant.

Now the truth is that all the above listed factors may look discouraging, but once all is set and done, you would actually fall in love with this really interesting agribusiness as you would learn a lot of things that you never anticipated at the initial stage.

 

One interesting point to take note of is that poultry farming business is highly rewarding, basically because the market demand is always guaranteed and the chances of success is also high if the right management approach is diligently followed .

 

Mr Agro entrepreneur, So you wanna start a successful poultry farm?

Then these are the things that you should consider.

Site

Broilers (For Meat) or Layers (For Eggs)

Cages or Deep Litter

Source of day old chicks

Time

 

Site

Starting a poultry farm, the first thing that comes to mind is where to site your farm. There are actually two options In this case, first is purchasing a land and the other is purchasing an already established poultry farm.

The later might be the more expensive option depending on your bargaining power , the state of the farm in terms of the facilities on ground as well as the reason for selling before being sold by the initial owner.

 

In most cases the quickest route is usually to purchase a used poultry farm due to the fact that it would require only some basic renovation and mop up operations to get started. But as initially mentioned, it definitely would cost more but is always the faster approach.

 

In most cases due to the difficulty and expenses involved in acquiring an already established poultry farm,most poultry enthusiasts are left with no option than to start from scratch.

The site location should be somewhere that is far from noisy environments as a result of sudden noises that can cause unwarranted and avoidable stress to the birds. The intending farmer should also consider factors like ease of access to the market though in most cases wholesale buyers do usually come to the farm location to purchase eggs basically due to the high demand for eggs and competitive nature of buyers to meet up with their daily supplies to retailers (In egg production, demand for eggs is always higher than supply).

 

However in breeding farms it would be advisable for the farm to be set up in less noisy and less polluted environments away from the city due to the sensitive nature of hatch able eggs that are meant to be free of contamination especially fungal causative microorganisms.

In siting your pen, it is also advisable to site the building in the east-west direction (vertical / horizontal)…why? The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Therefore, the exposure to excess sunlight by the birds would only be limited to the rear end of the pen (Horizontal) and not the whole side of the pen (vertical)

 

For Meat (Broilers) or For Eggs (Layers)

This decision of which type of poultry bird to raise for either meat or egg purpose is a dilemma that most intending farmers are usually faced with.

In most cases when a potential farmer is faced with such dilemma, I always advise that egg production should be firstly considered due to the guarantee that there would always be buyers/demand for poultry layer eggs.

While raising layer birds, the farmer can carry a brief study in his/her environment and find out the potential market demand for broiler chicken meat.Few broilers can be initially raised for this test batch of broiler birds. This would avoid issues of little or no demand for his broiler chicken meat when ready for market.

 

Since it takes between 6-8 weeks (depending on the attained target weight) the farmer can always decide to increase the number of broiler birds in the next batch if there is a guarantee of demand for his broiler birds.

 

 

 

Cages or Deep Litter System

The typical Question….Which option should I go for?

So you wanna start a poultry farm…Then definitely this should as well be considered.

Well, I would recommend to most poultry farmers who are limited in financial ability to start raising birds using the deep litter system because if well managed with no overcrowding or overstocking, there would definitely be a high success rate using the deep litter system.

Raising birds in cages definitely has its advantage and so it is advisable to acquire battery cages if the farmer can afford to purchase them. Price ranges from #35,000(used cages) to #90,000 or more depending on the type of cage(hot dip or electro galvanized battery cage) as well as its stocking capacity of the cage.

 

The issue of cannibalism, feather pecking, ease of control and reduced spread of disease amongst others are the advantages that battery cages tend to have over the deep litter system.

In order words, if you can afford battery cages right from the start, then go ahead, but if not, then deep litter system wouldn’t be a bad idea either as battery cages can be introduced later in the future.

 

 

Source of day old chicks

 

Charles would be very brief here.The foundation of any successful poultry farmer starts from the onset …the quality of your day old chicks.

It is advisable to purchase chicks from reputable farms with established reputation in the hatching/breeding business. Intending farmers can always enquire from successful poultry farmers in their environs with regards to sourcing for quality, healthy day old chicks. Chicks should have easyaccess to food and water on arrival and the brooding temperature should be within the appropriate brooding temperature range as birds are not able to regulate their body temperature at an early age.

 

 

Time/Personal Commitment

 

A farmer with no time for monitoring his birds would end up failing in this business. The borderline difference between a successful farmer and otherwise is basically the quantity of time and personal commitment that one commits to monitoring the activities on the poultry farm.

These birds need all the care and attention especially at the early stage of brooding. If the farm owner is too busy to attend to the birds, then the other option is to employ experienced hands can always available to ensure the smooth running of daily and routine farm activities as at when due. It would be further advisable to construct a residential section where the farm owner or the farm manager can always have easy access to the farm at all times including at night.

Finally, failure to pay attention to the birds would definitely result in poor performance from the birds.This shows that even in poultry farming the principle of garbage in garbage out also applies seriously to the success of any prospective poultry farmer.

 

WRITING A POULTRY FARMING BUSINESS PLAN

Many at times, both prospective and practicing poultry farmers usually have plans for expansion right from the onset.

write poultry farming business plan format template
In fact, it is the dream of every farmer to increase his/her poultry stocking capacity which is a genuine sign of good performance and growth over time.

But one of the easiest ways out is the existence of many funding opportunities that are available to farmers in the agribusiness sector.

Due to the dwindling revenue from crude oil, many government policies have tended to favor both prospective agro entrepreneurs as well as practicing poultry farmers in the various niches of agribusiness.

However unfortunately, there seem to be a lack of knowledge on how to access the funds that has been earmarked for the sole purpose of funding agribusinesses.

Apart from that, most farmers are also faced with the problem of how to write a bankable poultry farming business plan that can be used to apply for the funds.
In most cases, it is recommended that both prospective and practicing poultry farmers with little or no understanding of putting up a bankable poultry business plan should consult professionals with adequate working knowledge of poultry business.
However, writing a poultry farm business plan should be a skill of necessity especially for educated and experienced poultry farmers .With that knowledge, there is a greater chance that such poultry farmer would have the advantage of getting loans and grants from banks and other grant winning opportunities.

In writing poultry farming business plan, the following are the important major sections to consider:
• Executive Summary
This contains a brief summary of all other major sections of the poultry business plan. It would include Goals and objectives, mission, competitive edge, management, product price target market and marketing plans for the business.

 

Company Overview
This section would describe the History, address/location, products, management, scope, facilities.
Product & Service description
This section though very brief would highlight the Products and services offered by the Poultry farm. In most cases it would include live birds, processed chicken meat, table eggs and so on.
Industry and Market Analysis
This section contains two sub section i.e The industry and market analysis. The market analysis would analyze each market segment that the poultry farm intends to market its farm produce to. It should basically include distributors, eggs depots, fast food outlets, hotels and other groups. Each of these segments of the market should be described in details.

As for the Industry analysis, the poultry industry as a whole would be discussed in general. It would involve the current agric policy by the government and how it affects the poultry farmer, also factors of demand and supply of poultry products (egg and chicken meat) would be mentioned and how all these would favour the intending poultry farmer applying for the loan or grant.
Other major sections that should be included in the poultry farming business plan include
Sales Forecast and Marketing Strategy
The Marketing Strategy should explain how you would attractively market your farm produce to your target market while the sales forecast should be a very realistic target showing figures and values in naira and as well indicate likely factors that will either boost or negatively affect production .
• Management Summary
This section should be very straight forward and would describe the organizational structure which shows the names , position and respective responsibilities held by the top management of the farm
• SWOT Analysis
The SWOT analysis should basically include the strength vs the weaknesses as well as the opportunities vs the threats that the poultry farm would likely face. This should be done in a tabular format.
Risk Assessment and Contingency plans
This section should discuss the respective financial risk, health risk as well as the technological risks that the business would likely face as it progresses, These risks are unavoidable but a contingency plan would also be explained in the business plan to indicate how such risk would be counteracted should they occur.

• Financial Plan
This section would be in tabular and graphical format as it would be broken down to the letter showing much more precise figures and estimates .This is where any potential investor would critically analyse before granting any intending poultry farmer loans or grants. It should include the following sub sections:

Income statement
Balance sheet
Profit and loss statements
Fixed operating expenses
Break-even Analysis
Projected Cash Flow
Projected Profit and Loss

STARTING A POULTRY FARM

starting a poultry farm in nigeria

So you wanna start a poultry farm.

Definitely YES! That’s just why you are reading this poultry write up.

There are certain questions that must be answered if you really want to make a successful entry into the highly interesting, attractive and rigorous poultry farm business.

There are three important focal points of efforts that every successful poultry farm owner should have. i.e Technical, physical and financial.

Poultry farming is highly technical that is why proper agro education  acquired through on farm experience and/or classroom training shouldn’t be ignored. Some poultry farming techniques and principles an educated person would easily grab technical wise may be difficult for an uneducated person to understand.

 

Poultry farming is really physical. And I mean it!

The laborious nature involved cannot be underestimated. These birds deserve all the comfort and care that you can afford to give them

However in most cases the services of a pen attendant takes away the stress off the farm owner although farmers with fewer numbers of birds may be less concerned about employing a pen assistant.

Finally, Poultry farming requires a lot of financial commitments due to the fact that apart from the cost of setting up as well as poultry equipment acquisition, one would have to provide finances for feeding, vaccination, medication and a paid poultry farm attendant.

Now the truth is that all the above listed factors may look discouraging, but once all is set and done, you would actually fall in love with this really interesting agribusiness as you would learn a lot of things that you never anticipated at the initial stage.

 

One interesting point to take note of is that poultry farming business is highly rewarding, basically because the market demand is always guaranteed and the chances of success is also high if the right management approach is diligently followed .

 

Mr Agro entrepreneur, So you wanna start a successful poultry farm?

Then these are the things that you should consider.

Site

Broilers (For Meat) or Layers (For Eggs)

Cages or Deep Litter

Source of day old chicks

Time

 

Site

Starting a poultry farm, the first thing that comes to mind is where to site your farm. There are actually two options In this case, first is purchasing a land and the other is purchasing an already established poultry farm.

The later might be the more expensive option depending on your bargaining power , the state of the farm in terms of the facilities on ground as well as the reason for selling before being sold by the initial owner.

 

In most cases the quickest route is usually to purchase a used poultry farm due to the fact that it would require only some basic renovation and mop up operations to get started. But as initially mentioned, it definitely would cost more but is always the faster approach.

 

In most cases due to the difficulty and expenses involved in acquiring an already established poultry farm, most poultry enthusiasts are left with no option than to start from scratch.

The site location should be somewhere that is far from noisy environments as a result of sudden noises that can cause unwarranted and avoidable stress to the birds. The intending farmer should also consider factors like ease of access to the market though in most cases wholesale buyers do usually come to the farm location to purchase eggs basically due to the high demand for eggs and competitive nature of buyers to meet up with their daily supplies to retailers (In egg production, demand for eggs is always higher than supply).

 

However in breeding farms it would be advisable for the farm to be set up in less noisy and less polluted environments away from the city due to the sensitive nature of hatch able eggs that are meant to be free of contamination especially fungal causative microorganisms.

In siting your pen, it is also advisable to site the building in the east-west direction (vertical / horizontal)…why? The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Therefore, the exposure to excess sunlight by the birds would only be limited to the rear end of the pen (Horizontal) and not the whole side of the pen (vertical)

 

For Meat (Broilers) or For Eggs (Layers)

This decision  of which type of poultry bird to raise for either meat or egg purpose is a dilemma that most intending farmers are usually faced with.

In most cases when a potential farmer is faced with such dilemma, I always advise that egg production should be firstly considered due to the guarantee that there would always be buyers/demand for poultry layer eggs.

While raising layer birds, the farmer can carry a brief study in his/her environment and   find out the potential market demand for broiler chicken meat. Few broilers can be initially raised for this test batch of broiler birds. This would avoid issues of little or no demand for his broiler chicken meat when ready for market.

 

Since it takes between 6-8 weeks (depending on the attained target weight) the farmer can always decide to increase the number of broiler birds in the next batch if there is a guarantee of demand for his broiler birds.

 

 

 

Cages or Deep Litter System

The typical Question….Which option should I go for?

So you wanna start a poultry farm…Then definitely this should as well be considered.

Well, I would recommend to most poultry farmers who are limited in financial ability to start raising birds using the deep litter system because if well managed with no overcrowding or overstocking, there would definitely be a high success rate using the deep litter system.

Raising birds in cages definitely has its advantage and so it is advisable to acquire battery cages if the farmer can afford to purchase them. Price ranges from #35,000 (used cages) to #90,000 or more depending on the type of cage(hot dip or  electro galvanized battery cage) as well as its stocking capacity of the cage.

 

The issue of cannibalism, feather pecking, ease of control and reduced spread of disease amongst others are the advantages that battery cages tend to have over the deep litter system.

In order words, if you can afford battery cages right from the start, then go ahead, but if not, then deep litter system wouldn’t be a bad idea either as battery cages can be introduced later in the future.

 

 

Source of day old chicks

 

Charles would be very brief here. The foundation of any successful poultry farmer starts from the onset …the quality of your day old chicks.

It is advisable to purchase chicks from reputable farms with established reputation in the hatching/breeding business. Intending farmers can always enquire from successful poultry farmers in their environs with regards to sourcing for quality, healthy day old chicks. Chicks should have easy access to food and water on arrival and the brooding temperature should be within the appropriate brooding temperature range as birds are not able to regulate their body temperature at an early age.

 

 

Time/Personal Commitment

 

A farmer with no time for monitoring his birds would end up failing in this business. The borderline difference between a successful farmer and otherwise is basically the quantity of time and personal commitment that one commits to monitoring the activities on the poultry farm.

These birds need all the care and attention especially at the early stage of brooding. If the farm owner is too busy to attend to the birds, then the other option is to employ experienced hands can always available to ensure the smooth running of daily and routine farm activities as at when due. It would be further advisable to construct a residential section where the farm owner or the farm manager can always have easy access to the farm at all times including at night.

Failure to pay attention to the birds would definitely result in poor performance from the birds. This shows that even in poultry farming the  principle of  garbage in garbage out also applies seriously to the success of any prospective poultry farmer.